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GSM architecture شرح

شرح تكوين ال GSM Full GSM Fundamentals Training course with certificationhttps://telcomaglobal.com/p/gsm-fundamentals-training-course-certificationGSM architecture how it wor.. GSM architecture Training Course 21:30. الفرق بين السويتش والروتر و الهاب بشكل سهل ومفصل ولن تحتاج الى شرح بعد هدا - Duration: 22:14

GSM tutorial | Tutorial on GSM architecture. This GSM tutorial covers GSM basics, gsm architecture and gsm system features. This basic tutorial on gsm architecture also covers GSM burst types, GSM frame structure, gsm channels, gsm physical layer and so on. GSM introduction. GSM is the short form of Global System for Mobile Communications Introduction to GSM Architecture. Wireless mobile communication plays an important role in connecting People, Aircraft, Ships, Vehicles, and many other things that are on move irrespective of their geographical location. It enables 24×7 connectivity of the abovementioned objects digitally and the evolution of real-time applications to monitor. GSM - Architecture - A GSM network comprises of many functional units. These functions and interfaces are explained in this chapter. The GSM network can be broadly divided into The GSM contains most of the necessary capabilities to support packet transmission over GSM. The critical part in the GPRS network is the mobile to GSN (MS-SGSN) link which includes the MS-BTS, BTS-BSC, BSC-SGSN, and the SGSN-GGSN link .fig 1 shows block diagram of GSM architecture ما معنى GSM ؟ كلمة GSM اختصار لـ Global System for Mobile Communication و إذا أردنا أن نترجمها حرفيا إلى العربي فهي تعني النظام العالمي للأنصال المتحرك (الجوال), و هي الشبكة الحالية المتوافقة المواصفات في جميع بلدان العالم

جي إس إم أو النّظام الشامِلُ للإتّصالاتِ النّقالة أو النظام الموحد للاتصالات المتنقلة أو النظام العالمي للاتصالات المتنقلة (بالإنجليزية: Global System for Mobile اختصاراً GSM)‏ هو الجيل الثاني من نظم الاتصالات في الشبكات. GSM network architecture elements. In order that the GSM system operates together as a complete system, the overall network architecture brings together a series of data network identities, each with several elements. The GSM network architecture is defined in the GSM specifications and it can be grouped into four main areas: Network and. The Base Station Subsystem BSS provides the connection between the mobile stations and the Network Subsystem NSS. The NSS forwards user signals to other mobi.. GSM Architecture and Call FlowGSM Architecture : It refers to set of logically arranged network elements required for making and receiving calls from mobile station to another. It is divided in 3 parts : a)Base Station Subsystem(BSS) b)Switching System c)Operational Support System (OSS) From the above figure we can easily determine the call flow

Video: 1- شرح بالعربي عن تكوين GSM - GSM architecture - YouTub

GSM: HISTORY• Developed by Group Spéciale Mobile (founded 1982) which was an initiative of CEPT ( Conference of European Post and Telecommunication )• Under ETSI, GSM is named as Global System for Mobile communication in 1989• Full set of specifications phase-I became available in 1990• Phase 2 of the GSM specifications occurs. The Architecture of GSM Technology. Network and Switching Subsystem (NSS) Base-Station Subsystem (BSS) The mobile station (MS) Operation and Support Subsystem (OSS) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) In GSM system architecture, it includes different elements, which are frequently known as the core system/network

GSM service area The GSM service area is the entire geographical area in which a subscriber can gain access to a GSM network. 7 7. GSM system architecture Mobile Station (MS) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Network Switching Subsystem(NSS) 8 8. Mobile Station (MS) The Mobile Station is made up of two entities: 1 شبكة ال GSM ما معنى GSM ? كلمة GSM أختصار لـ Global System for Mobile Communication و إذا اردنا. ان نترجمها حرفيا الى العربي فهي تعني النظام العالمي للأتصال المتحرك (الجوال), و هي الشبكة الحاليه المتوافقة المواصفات في جميع بلدان العالم Un réseau GSM est constitué de trois sous-systèmes :le sous-système Radio BSS Base Station Sub-system, le sous-système Réseau NSS Network and Switching Sub-system, le sous-système d'exploitation OSS Operation Support Sub-system. Ainsi, on peut ainsi représenter schématiquement un réseau radiomobile de la manière suivante.. A GSM network comprises of many functional units. These functions and interfaces are explained in this chapter. The GSM network can be broadly divided into: The Mobile Station MS The Base Station Subsystem BSS The Network Switching Subsystem NSS The Operation Support Subsystem OSS Given below is a simple pictorial view of the GSM architecture gsm architectural services provides quality architectural planning, design and construction management services for residential and commercial clients. from accurately estimating unforeseen costs to designing with your special needs in mind, gsm architectural services can help you get your project from start to finish with a minimum of problems.

GSM architecture Training Course What is 2G cellular

  1. GSM وهى اختصار لكلمةGlobal System for Mobile communications - لنظام العالمى لاتصالات الهاتف المحمول وهى عبارة عن بروتوكول لنقل البيانات فى مجال الاتصالات من خلال الهاتف المحمول، حيث يتم فيها تخصيص تردد ثابت.
  2. The additional services of GSM are the most of the time vocal services and are first normally in being accessible by an operator of the network after provision of the basic service of GSM. GSM Architecture diagram. Here is the flow chart of GSM architecture
  3. اذا اردت القيام بعملية ريستور للايفون فحتما ستحتاج قبل ان تبدأ في عملية تحميل النظام معرفة ماهو موديل جهازك هل هو GSM او CDMA او ما يعرف بالـ Global لان انظمة الايفون تنقسم الى ثلاثة انواع GSM, CDMA, Globa
  4. IT conTAInS• InTRodUcTIon To GSM.• WhAT IS GSM.• SpecIFIcATIonS oF GSM.• GSM neTWoRk AReA.• GSM ARchITecTURe.• MoBIle STATIon.• MoBIle IdenTIFIcATIon nUMBeRS. 3. WHATE IS GSM?• Global System for Mobile (GSM) is a second generation cellular standard developed to cater voice services and data delivery using digital modulation 4
  5. شرح gsm بالعربى pdf كورس كامل لشرح GSM [حمله الان او اقراءه اون لاين] الكورس عبارة عن 9 ملقات لشرح نظام الاتصالات GSM باللغة العربي

The GSM architecture consists of three major interconnected subsystems that interact with themselves and with users through certain network interface. The subsystems are Base Station Subsystem (BSS), Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) and Operational Support Subsystem (OSS). Mobile Station (MS) is also a subsystem but it is considered as a part. شرح درس C6 - L2 | Architectural design في مادة Software Engineering | هندسة برمجيات - 00 - 00 على منصة نفهم التعليمية، الشرح من مساهمات: Nafham Team - Admi GSM The following is a note of all these sections of GSM architecture to be discussed. A digital mobile signal should reach all these sections one-after-another in order to carry out the communication between the called-person and the calling-person

Wireless networking

‫شرح حول تقنيه GSM‬‎ - YouTub

A GSM Architecture is a complex structure to understand. It is made of many small units working in a harmonious way. To better understand the GSM architecture, divide all the units in four categories. The GSM system can be separated into three extensive divisions شرح نظام gsm خطوة بخطوة ##### النظام العالمي للاتصالات المتنقلة • 1982 نظام المجموعة الخاصة بالهاتف المتنقل gsm تأسست من قبل ctep. • 1987 تم تحديد العناصر الضرورية لارسال اللاسلكي Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) architecture comprises of the following components − Mobile Station: The mobile station is the mobile phone, which comprises of the mobile handset and SIM card.The mobile handset comprises of the transceiver, the display and its processor For GSM networks, these problems were taken into account at the design stage and a security architecture was implemented to provide protection services to users and network operators. Read more.

Study and learn Interview MCQ Questions and Answers on 2G GSM Structure / Architecture Basics. Topics include BSS, MSS, BSC, BTS, MSC, HLR, VLR, AUC, EIR and more. Attend Job interviews and college exams easily with these Multiple Choice Questions Gsm شرح. شرح gsm بالعربى pdf كورس كامل لشرح GSM [حمله الان او اقراءه اون لاين] الكورس عبارة عن 9 ملقات لشرح نظام الاتصالات GSM باللغة العربي تعمل شبكات gsm في عدد من نطاقات تردد الموجة الحاملة المختلفة (مفصولة في نطاقات تردد gsm.

يسمح نسخ وتوزيع و/أو تعديل هذه الوثيقة تحت شروط رخصة جنو للوثائق الحرة، الإصدار 1.2 أو أي إصدار لاحق تنشره مؤسسة البرمجيات الحرة؛ دون أقسام ثابتة ودون نصوص أغلفة أمامية ودون نصوص أغلفة خلفية. . نسخة من الرخصة تم تضمينها. السلام عليكم ورحمه الله وبركاته بداية اخوتي نرحب بكافة مشتركينا ومتابعي صفحتنا gsm سنشرح لكم اليوم عن ميزات اداة gsm social الاصدار الرابع والخامس والسادس سنسرد لكم بشكل عام عن ميزات الاداة ووظائفها بشكل عام ونرجو من الله. في الأونة الأخيرة انتشرت الهواتف الذكية smart phone بشكل مبالغ فيه ، الأمر الذي دفع الغالبية العظمى من الناس من الاشتراك بخدمة الإنترنت ومواقع التواصل الإجتماعي ، وهذا ما جعل البحث عن إصدارات الهواتف والتعرف على كل ما هو.

GSM tutorial Tutorial on GSM architecture

  1. GSM The following is a note of all these sections of GSM architecture to be discussed. A digital mobile signal should reach all these sections one-after-another in order to carry out the communication between the called-person and the calling-person
  2. GSM Architecture A O& M Air MS NMS BSS NSS The NMS is the operation and maintenance related part of the network and it is needed for the control of the whole GSM network. The network operator observes and maintains network quality and service offered through the NMS. The three subsystems in a GSM network are linked by the air-, A-, and O&
  3. GSM Architecture. Objectives At the end of the module the student is able to: Name the three subsystems of GSM List eight different network elements (generic architecture) and name at least one task per element Name two differences between the generic GSM network architecture and the Nokia implementation. Name two advantages with the DX 200 platform's modularity and distributed processing List.

GSM Architecture GSM Architecture ,Types and Deploymen

  1. كتاب شرح كورس gsm باللغة العربية 2020-02-12 2020-10-28 يوسف سامي كتاب شرح GSM , كورس GSM , كورسات , هندسة الإتصالات كتاب اليوم لشرح كورس ال GSM بالعربي نقلا عن مهندس محمود وجدي وتنسيق وإعداد مهندس عبدالله الجبر
  2. General Packet Radio Service (GPRS) is a packet oriented mobile data service on the 2G and 3G cellular communication system's global system for mobile communications (GSM). GPRS was originally standardised by European Telecommunications Standards Institute (ETSI) in response to the earlier CDPD and i-mode packet-switched cellular technologies
  3. GSM is the most secured cellular telecommunications system available today. GSM has its security methods standardized. GSM maintains end-to-end security by retaining the confidentiality of calls and anonymity of the GSM subscriber. Temporary identification numbers are assigned to the subscriber's number to maintain the privacy of the user

The architecture of a GSM system is shown in the figure 2.1 below. Figure 2.1: GSM Architecture (Source: Bettstetter et. all) In addition to the above entities several databases are used for the purpose of call control and network management. These databases are Home Location Register (HLR), Visitor Location Register (VLR), the Authentication. السلام عليكم ورحمة الله وبركاته أقدم لكم بفضل الله تعالى وبكرمه ومنُه شرح لكورس GSM فيديو بالعربى بصوتى وأسأل الله أن يتقبل منى هذا العمل ويجعله خالصاً لوجهه الكريم وأوجه الشكر الجزيل لل 2 مهندسين اللى ليهم الفضل عليا. شرح طريقه تشغيل الاداه الجديده 4 Gsm Tools Pro لتخطي واصلاح وتعريب عدد كبير من الاجهزه 27 ديسمبر 2021 2020-12-27T08:27:00-08:00 2021-01-16T14:20:13-08:0 DM_7_GSM_Protocol_Architecture.ppt 7 User Data and Control at Air Interface ISDN channels: 2 x B + D = 2x 64 kb/s + 16 kb/s = 144 kb/s. D channel used for signaling and possibly some user data. In GSM: •Bm channel for traffic / user data •Dm channel for signaling As in ISDN the Dm channel in GSM can be used for user data if capacity is.

GSM - Architecture - Tutorialspoin

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  2. GSM Architecture - Free download as Powerpoint Presentation (.ppt), PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online
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  4. I am a Computer Engineer from Iraq my goal of this site is to increase the Arabic scientific materials online both in Quantity and in Quality by making lessons (written and videos) about everything related to my fields of interests which includes: 1- Computer Science and Engineering: Academic and technical contents. 2- English Language: both normal life English and academic English.
  5. Following is the figure, which shows how OMC system covers all the GSM elements. The OSS is the functional entity from which the network operator monitors and controls the system. The purpose of OSS is to offer the customer cost-effective support for centralized, regional, and local operational and maintenance activities that are required for a.
Gsm architecture

GSM Architecture. GSM Various subsystems 1. Network Subsystem includes the equipments. and functions related to end-to-end call. 2. Radio Subsystem includes the equipments and. functions related to the management of the connections on the radio path. 3. Operations and Maintenance subsystem includes the operation and maintenance of GSM equipment. GSM Architecture & Engineering Progetto di ristrutturazione villino! GSM Architecture & Engineering. January 16 at 11:44 AM. Progettiamo la tua casa GSM Architecture & Engineering!! GSM Architecture & Engineering. January 15 at 1:01 PM. GSM Architecture & Engineering! Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA) is a style of software design where services are provided to the other components by application components, through a communication protocol over a network Samsung Galaxy J7 (2016) Android smartphone. Announced Mar 2016. Features 5.5″ display, Snapdragon 617 chipset, 13 MP primary camera, 5 MP front camera, 3300 mAh battery, 16 GB storage, 2 GB RAM GSM works on FTDMA principle while UMTS works on CDMA principle. Initially GSM was developed to take care of voice communications. Later with advent of GPRS/EDGE, data communications have become more popular with this wireless standard. In GSM, one frequency as well as one time slot is dedicated for communication in each direction by the GSM.

GSM - Explain GSM architecture with a neat block diagram

تخطى كامل للايكلود مع تشغيل الشبكة مجانا لجميع اجهزة الايفون والايباد شرح اليوم سيكون عن طريقة تخطى الايكلود وتشغيل الشبكة مجانا مع تشغيل جميع امكانيات الايفون او الايباد كما سوف ترى فى الشرح المصور باخر الشرح ولتخطى. GSM radio technology is specified in the 3GPP TS 45.-series specifications. The overall GSM network architecture is described in 3GPP TS 23.002 and a complete list of Technical Specifications for GSM systems is given in 3GPP TS 41.101. A list of related standards in the public domain is accessible via the ETSI standards search #هفيدك_haafedk,Gsm Tools Pro,#هفيدك_haafedk,Gsm Tools Pro,شرح طريقه تشغيل الاداه الجديده Gsm Tools Pro لتخطي واصلاح وتعريب عدد كبير من الاجهز

GSM architecture in hindi का पूरा नाम global system for mobile communication है architecture जो होता है वह बहुत सारें अलग-अलग कंपोनेंट्स से बना हुआ होता है The network architecture for GSM EDGE was basically the same as that used with GPRS SGSN network entity. The SGSN or Serving GPRS Support Node element of the GPRS network provides a number of takes focussed on the IP elements of the overall system. It provides a variety of services to the mobiles GSMArena.com - The ultimate resource for GSM handset informatio The course builds up the understanding from basic of telephony and slowly moving toward most complex IP and SS7 architecture of network that co-exist today. Apart from architecture and call flow, the management of network and business application system has been explained to complete the 360 degree view of GSM networks GSM introduction Network architecture Network interfaces RF interface / slot & burst GSM frames Power classes & control Channels Audio codecs / vocoders Handover One of the key elements of a mobile phone or cellular telecommunications system, is that the system is split into many small cells to provide good frequency re-use and coverage

شرح وافي لنظام أل Gsm - منتدى الاتصالا

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  2. GSM Architecture & Engineering. 206 likes. Progettazione architettonica interni ed esterni, visione tridimensionale del progetto, utilizzo realtà virtuale e simulazione realistica. Ingegneria..
  3. Gsm Network Architecture Software ANA: Autonomic Network Architecture v.20090215 The ANA Project aims at exploring novel ways of organizing and using networks beyond legacy Internet technology.
  4. شرح طريقة عمل سوفتوير لأجهزة السامسونج. شرح طريقة عمل سوفتوير لأجهزة السامسونج كيفية عمل سوفتوير لهواتف السامسونج , كيفية تركيب الروم الرسمي لهواتف السامسونج , كيفية إزالة الروت نهائيا من أجهز

جي إس إم - ويكيبيدي

GSM Network Architecture: GSM System Architecture

Architecture of GSM system: There are two main parts of GSM system. One is known as BSS ( Base Station Subsystem) or the Access Network and the other one is NSS (Network Subsystem) or Core Network GSM Specifications Before looking at the GSM specifications, it is important to understand the following basic terms: • bandwidth—the range of a channel's limits; the broader the bandwidth, the faster data can be sent • bits per second (bps)—a single on-off pulse of data; eight bits are equivalent to one byte • frequency—the number.

GSM Architecture - YouTub

7.7.2 Protocol architecture 227 7.7.3 System architecture 230 7.7.4 Services and applications 231 8 Improved data services in GSM: GPRS, HSCSD and EDGE 233 8.1 GPRS 233 8.1.1 System architecture of GPRS 234 8.1.2 Services 237 8.1.3 Session management, mobility management and routing 238 8.1.4 Protocol architecture 242 8.1.5 Signaling plane 24 Here you can download file GSM architecture. 2shared gives you an excellent opportunity to store your files here and share them with others. Join our community just now to flow with the file GSM architecture and make our shared file collection even more complete and exciting SYSTEM TRAINING. GSM Architecture Training Document. 6-66864 Issue 2.0. Nokia Oyj. 1 (41) GSM Architecture. The information in this document is subject to change without notice and describes only the product defined in the introduction of this documentation. This document is intended for the use of Nokia Networks' customers only for the purposes of the agreement under which the document is. ABSTRACT Global System for Mobile communication (GSM) is a widely accepted standard for digital cellular communication. It has become the mobile communication standard in more than 160 countries all over the globe. In this paper, we are interested i Before we go on to the actual GPRS architecture it is important to know the architecture of GSM network since in order to support GPRS this network had to be altered in order to be able to transmit data in packet switched mode. GSM Network. A GSM network is known as PLMN ( public land mobile network) and can be divided into various parts known.

2g(GSM) architecture - YouTubeMobile Banking Security in GSM – Road to Digital World

(PDF) Basic Introduction to GSM Architecture and Call Flow

GSM Architecture - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online The mobile switches of a GSM network may also be replaced by an NGN architecture which is called R4 architecture. References Roger L Freeman, Fundamentals of Telecommunications, 2nd Edition, Wiley 2005. Tarmo Anttalainen, Introduction to Telecommunications, Network Engineering, 2nd Edition, Artech House, 2003. Rogier Noldus, CAMEL, Wiley. GSM Architecture - Free download as PDF File (.pdf), Text File (.txt) or view presentation slides online. GSM Architecture شرح بروتوكول ARP (بروتوكول ايجاد العناوين) شرح أداة Arping و أداة Arping2 و علاقتها ببرنامج W... عيوب الحماية في GSM و امكانية اختراقها; شرح أداة Nbtscan و معرفة البرامج التي تعمل على جها..

Gsm architecture - SlideShar

GSM Architecture was established in Edinburgh, Scotland with the pursuit of creating beautiful spaces that people can interact with. My ethos is to deliver a friendly, relaxed approach with high quality, innovative solutions and creative thinking GSM Architecture System .docx Loadin GSM (Global System for Mobile Communications) is a most popular wireless communication system around the word for mobile technology communication. GSM Definition,History,Architecture and How GSM communication works? Basic Module of GSM Communication and Circuit of GSM Mode

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What is GSM Technology : Architecture, Circuit Working

UMTS/GSM Network Architecture GPRS Core (Packet Switched) SGSN GGSN Internet GSM RAN Base station Base station controller Base station Base station UTRAN Radio network controller node B node B node B MSC ISDN GSM Core (Circuit switched) HLR AuC EIR GMSC. UMTS Networks Oliver Waldhorst, Jens Mückenheim Oct-11 The GSM standard is the most widely accepted standard and is implemented globally.GSM networks handle both voice and data traffic requirements of the mobile communication, GPRS internet network through which u can connect to web pages.GSM is type of service provided in mobile handset in which all the network can be use like T-mobile, Fido. With around 3 billion subscribers, GSM is the world's most commonly used technology for wireless communication. Providing an overview of the innovations that have fuelled this phenomena, GSM: Architecture, Protocols and Services, Third Edition offers a clear introduction to the field of cellular systems Architecture GSM abbreviation meaning defined here. What does GSM stand for in Architecture? Get the top GSM abbreviation related to Architecture The architecture and interior design studio is located on level 4, bringing together over 120 architects in an open-plan working space, with private offices for the project leaders and the.

Content What is GSM? Network structure GSM system architecture Mobile Station (MS) Base Station Subsystem (BSS) Network Switching Subsystem (NSS) GSM is an acronym of Global System for mobile communication. It is considered as 2G (or 2nd Generation telecom technology standard). The architecture of GSM has mainly four components: 1. Mobile stati view the full answe تقنية cdma وهي تقنية الوصول المتعدد بتقسيم الشيفرة تستخدم في شبكات الهواتف المحمولة, هي التقنية المنافسة لتكنولوجيا خدمة الهاتف الخليوي gsm الأكثر استخداما لشبكات الهاتف الخليوي في العالم With around 3 billion subscribers, GSM is the world's most commonly used technology for wireless communication. Providing an overview of the innovations that have fuelled this phenomena, GSM: Architecture, Protocols and Services, Third Edition offers a clear introduction to the field of cellular systems. Special emphasis is placed on system architecture and protocol aspects, and topics range. An unlicensed wireless service is adapted to generate the interface protocols of a licensed wireless service to provide transparent transition of communication sessions between a licensed wireless service and an unlicensed wireless service. In one embodiment, a mobile station includes level 1, level 2, and level 3 protocols for licensed wireless service and an unlicensed wireless service

GSM network architecture

2 meanings of GSM acronym and GSM abbreviation in Architecture. Get the definition of GSM in Architecture by All Acronyms dictionary. Top Definition: Galvanized Sheet Metal In Architecture.. List page number شرح_طريقة_التسجيل في اداة The Guost Tool مرحبا بكم اصدقائي متابعي وزوار موقع GSM HEART حيث يقدم موقعنا جميع الحلول والمشاكل بشكل مجاني وبدون اي.. تجربة شراء جهاز تتبع السيارات مع شرح لكيفية استخدامه New GSM GPRS GPS Tracker . بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم. Architecture réseau GSM Le réseau GSM a pour premier rôle de permettre des communications entre abonnés mobiles (GSM) et abonnés du réseau téléphonique commuté (RTC - réseau fixe). Le réseau GSM s'interface avec le réseau RTC et comprend des commutateurs. Le réseau GSM se distingue par un accès spécifique : la liaison radio السلام عليكم نرجو من المهندسين الاكفاء فى هذا المنتدى العظيم عمل فيديوهات شرح لكورسات الموبايل gsm gprs cdma umts على غرار الفيديوهات القيمة للccna & mcse علما بان كورسات الموبايل اقصر فى المدة وجزاكم الله خير

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  • وَيَسْأَلُونَكَ عَنِ الرُّوحِ قُلِ الرُّوحُ من أَمْرِ رَبِّي وما أوتيتم من العلم إلا قَلِيلًا.
  • بورسعيد لايف.
  • جواز مها السديري.
  • أنواع الذهب.
  • حكم وأمثال عن السقوط.
  • مندي لحم بالفرن بالقصدير.
  • خلطة للنوم العميق.
  • أقوال مأثورة مضحكة.
  • عدد أهداف ميسي 2020.
  • آثار المخدرات على الوجه.
  • بوستات عن الجواز مضحكة.
  • حملة توعوية عن التدخين.
  • نسبة الفقر في ليبيا.
  • Boadicea the Victorious.
  • معنى ضلال من حرفين.
  • فساتين سوداء طويلة للمحجبات.
  • أكثر الشعوب العربية عنصرية.
  • مميزات العيش في المدينة بالانجليزي.
  • ترامبولين للاطفال.
  • Gas chromatography.
  • Boudoir Ideas.
  • عضلة الساق الأمامية.